Sunday, February 23, 2020
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Friday, February 7, 2020
Legacy Fighter Aircraft Upgrades and New Stealth Fighters - Research Paper Example 563; Collier & Ankle, 2002, p. 13). While terror seemed to be seeped within regional efforts supported by allied forces to weaken the perceived enemies, however, there is perceived military imbalance in strategic geographic region where US militaryÃ¢â¬â¢s power seemed bit nil, if not weak, but is nonetheless complemented with diplomatic relations, such as those security threat cases posed by China and of North Korea in Asia. The odds of denuclearization efforts and hazy economic-political climate within the region as well as the sustaining movements in the Arab countries remained both a threat and opportunity for the US forces to rethink about the need to upgrade the capacities for warfare (Collier & Hoeffler, 2006, p. 89; Deger & Sen, 1983, p. 67; Harbom & Wallensteen, 2007, p. 623; Reynal-Querol, 2005, pp. 445) In the last decade, US forces have been focused in combating terror groups in Iraq, Libya, Afghanistan, and in working with reformistsÃ¢â¬â¢ organization within the Arab region with hope to change the system and make it more liberal in its trading relation. However, amid these challenging turn of events, there are also intrinsic realities posed by Pentagon about the need of the military aviation forces to scale up its defence or operational system, such as upgrading of its its USAF fighter platforms from F-22 to new F-35s, as well as by upgrading the aerodynamics or aircraft systems. In this project, the researcher will determine the (a) prices of the F-35s and the cost of upgrading its aerodynamic systems, (b) the capacity of the US government and military agency to allocate budget for these projects, and (c) the consideration of the legislators on the fiscal requirements for this upgrade. Data Collection This is a qualitative research that will investigate the requirement in upgrading the military aviation forces of US and to hopefully embark comparative details of these matters with consideration of the current deliberation of the needs and cost analysis of the upgrade. Qualitative study will rely in primary and secondary sources that can be lifted from interviews, reports, publications, magazines and online information. The study will help elucidate the prospect and consequence of plan to upgrade the military aviation system. Data gathered will be reviewed, collated and evaluated to arrive at a reasonable conclusion that may (or may not) aid the decision-making of the legislations and authorities in Pentagon. The researchers evaluate the information based on historical records, plans of the DoD, and budget schedules as well as its estimates (GAO, 2012). Test reports were also considered including the risk information of the new capabilities (GAO, 2012). Data Analysis Last month, July of 2013, the Department of Defence of the United Sates announced of forging an agreement to purchase 71 F-35 fighter jets from Lockheed Martin at a lower cost of 4% less than the original prices for stealth and radar evading fighter jets but discounts will only be for 36 units and another 8% less for the remaining 35 units (Drew, 2013). Reports mentioned that the cost, including the ancillary facilities, are pegged at $7 billion per unit thus, state authorities require the reduction of the cost while other cost analysts outside the government batted that the cost would be rising still. The high costs and the anent problems associated in the acquisition have also discouraged other Pentagon officials and thought of scrapping
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Technology Development Essay The causal link between development and historical time is often contested, although there is persuasive evidence of this link. Therefore, this essay will have the following structure: first of all, theoretical justification of the claim that historical time is connected with development will be given; secondly, several case studies will be analyzed; and finally, the counterarguments will be discussed and refuted. Starting with the theoretical explication of the link between historical time and development, it is necessary to admit that power in international relations has been defined differently in different historical eras. For example, once military capabilities were the only measure of a stateÃ¢â¬â¢s power; nowadays, a variety of economic, social, and cultural indicators contribute to a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s position on the international arena. Power, in turn, is associated with development, being its cause and consequence at the same time: only developed countries can attain power, which later accelerates their economic development through providing access to resources and capabilities of other countries. As concerns case studies that prove this point, American involvement in World War I and World War II will be analyzed. These wars have had a significant impact on the economic conditions of the United States, although they were not started or incited by America, therefore can be regarded as external historical influences. Different war involvements have had different influence on the U. S. economy. The legacy of the World War I is associated with the Great Depression; on the contrary, US entry in the World War II boosted economic growth. The World War I was not the main reason for the Great Depression, but almost all causes of this economic disaster are directly or indirectly connected with the war. For instance, if we speak about agricultural sector, during the war the government was subsidizing farms and paid absurdly high prices for wheat and other grains, but when the World War I was over, the federal government abruptly stopped their policies to protect farmers. As the result, agriculture suffered from such an unbalanced approach. Moreover, foreign trade suffered significantly. The Fordney-McCumber Act of 1922, Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 and a number of other lawsuits increased import tariffs without any economically sound reason. The result of the abovementioned tariff changes was that European businesses, devastated by the war, could not sell their products on the U. S. market in necessary quantities. It is possible to perceive the American entry into the World War II as an event that has actually ended the Great Depression in this country. Due to large numbers of citizens enlisted in the army, unemployment rates fell to record low levels during the war. Soldiers received decent salaries and were eagerly spending their money after the return from the battlefield. Strengthened consumer spending fueled growth and was a sign of restored consumer confidence. Large sums of defense spending pulled the U. S. economy out of the Depression for the ample reason that such fields as defense and security are very labor-intensive and created thousands of jobs to further decrease unemployment. The necessity to manufacture war supplies had given rise to a powerful military-industrial complex. While wars have had varying overall effects on the U. S. economy, they definitely fueled the development of the military-industrial complex. Wartime production of the military-industrial complex has been soaring throughout the American history. The military-industrial complex came to play a significant role in the overall structure of the economy. It is quite self-evident that the complexÃ¢â¬â¢s raison dÃ¢â¬â¢etre is the production of arms and equipment for subsequent use in military operations. Thus, military operations following the World War II have only strengthened the AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s leading position on the international arena, which in turn provided for beneficial trade agreements, migration of skilled labor to the U. S. , and a voice in international institutions. All the aforementioned factors are directly linked to economic development. Coming back to the link between the World War II and economic development, several other factors have to be mentioned. War machine demanded scientific innovations, so the war stimulated many important fields (Ruttan, 2006). The Marshall Plan was introduced after the war and helped to secure markets for numerous American products by providing financial help to devastated European countries. International monetary arrangements were reconsidered. Due to the spurt of economic growth and economic devastation of Europe, America became the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s superpower. War is not necessarily an economic stimulus to the victor, but there was no destruction on American soil, so the U. S. was prosperous in the post-war era. The U. S. got involved in the World War II only at the closing stages of the conflict, when the victory over fascism was secured by its European allies. The U. S. entry in the World War II boosted the growth of the military-industrial complex, and that was one of the major reasons behind the decision to engage in it. This is an example of how a state can take advantage of historical circumstances to boosts its development. There are several strands of counterargument to the statement that development is connected with historical time. The most important strand argues that the development is associated solely with the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s internal resources and capabilities: for example, natural resources are of greater importance for development than global historical conditions. However, there are examples that disprove this theory. For instance, Japan has very limited range of available natural resources, and their dependency on foreign energy sources is almost total. However, due to historic factors such as defeat in the World War II and JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s occupation by the Allied Powers, Japan adopted Western principles of state-building and social organization. Despite lack of natural resources, rapid westernization and modernization following the World War II allowed Japan to develop the most cutting-edge high-tech industry and become the second largest economy in the world. Therefore, the claim that internal resources are more important than historical time with regard to development does not hold. While the claim might have had some credibility in the past, when all important processes were confined to the borders of nation state, globalization changes the nature of those processes by reshaping all fields of human activity ranging from manufacture to governance. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that there is a strong link between development of a given state and global historical conditions. References Ruttan, V. W. (2006). Is War Necessary for Economic Growth? Military Procurement and Technology Development. New York: Oxford University Press.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Interview: Views on Clinton’s Impeachment The impeachment of Bill Clinton is one of the “weirdest episodes'; in our political history. He is the only elected President of the United States ever to be resulted in the passage of impeachment (Johnson was not elected, Nixon resigned to prevent impeachment). The reason for his impeachment is that he lied under the oath during the testimony in the Paula Jones sexual harassment suit, and to grand jury during Monica Lewinsky investigation. He even abused power and lied to the Congress in an attempt to cover up a series of indiscretions, which resulted in the passage of four articles of impeachment. These incidents later turned out to be a political soap opera and ended with Clinton’s presidency preserved, but it is a soap opera that many believed it could be prevent from happening. Clinton’s impeachment made headlines news across the nation ever since it was revealed to the public. Unfortunately, many people still have a long way to know what went on behind the close door of the impeachment. The majority do not have an idea if the Congress is making the right move or not to impeach our President. Hence, many do not realize how the impeachment might affect our nation politically. To answer this, I conducted an interview with my high school physics instructor, Mr. Arnold Burkert. I interviewed him as a person who strongly dislikes the notion of Clinton’s impeachment. My goal of this interview was to write a paper about the impeachment by using public opinion and attitude toward one of the “weirdest episodes'; in our political history. As a supplement to this interview and to write this paper, news magazine articles related to this assignment were also used as in a supporting role. The first remark my instructor made in this interview was that the Congress had made a bad judgement to pass the impeachment. He reasoned that Clinton managed a healthy economy and gained strong approval in the national polls. He believes Clinton’s offenses were personal and minor. Although his sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky was reckless behavior, the Constitution doesn’t have anything that says one should be impeached for reckless conduct. The Constitution can only impeach President Clinton if he commits treason, bribery, high crimes, and misdemeanors. Therefore, he believed Clinton’s impropriety is not related to the Congress or even us, the people, which means his faulty action is not impeachable according to the rules of the Constitution.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
It is important that a person is always the centre of planning there decisions and wishes for the future and you should always use a person centred approach when dealing with an individual. For example if a doctor was explaining a course of treatment to a certain individual and you could see that the individual did not understand what the doctor was telling them but the carer assumed it would be OK to let the doctor carry on and just explain the the individual later on. Where in fact you should of stopped to ask that individual if the understood and if not then ask the doctor to explain himself in a different way were they may understand more. This then includes the individual and gives them the ability to ask questions and decided what decisions they may want because they would be in the centre of their own care. If you was to wait until the individual was home to explain what the doctor was saying then they may of made the wrong choices in which path they wanted to go in simply because they did not realise what the doctor was saying and could therefore become distressed by this. For example if the individual was to agree to a type of treatment which goes against there values and beliefs but because the carer did not explain what the doctor meant they may not of known what they were agreeing to. where as by getting the doctor the explain in a understanding form for them means that they could find out all the information they need to make decisions and come away happy knowing that they fully understand what they have chosen to do. This is why person centred planning is so important because it means the individual is in charged of what they want and it makes them less distress knowing that they can make their own choices and they are being listened too and they are valued as a person.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Another downside to the incarceration method of dealing with drug offenders is the fact that a social inequality is formed once they are released from prison. Former inmates are treated less than normal non convict citizens making it hard for them to find decent housing, sufficient paying jobs, and people in which to form meaningful relations with. A lack of these things can bring them back to a performing criminal acts, going farther than just substance abuse in order to make a living that they canÃ¢â¬â¢t do with a legitimate job. Another major impact that mass incarceration is having on society in the United States is in the political sector as felons are often stripped of their voting rights. Of course this can be seen as negative or positive depending on your political views, but the fact remains that with a large amount of the population being unable to vote outcomes in elections could be much different (Moroney). From the explanations given above, it is quite easy to see how incarceration is counterproductive to helping those with drug addictions. The next major question is how successful is treatment for drug offenders. The answer: very actually. In fact, with treatment, many benefits are found. Not only for addicts but everyone else as well. Improvements in crime rates, taxpayer spending, and overall well being of drug offenders are found where drug treatment is implemented for addicts. What does treatment for drug offenders look like? One example is MarylandÃ¢â¬â¢s BreakShow MoreRelatedThe Incarceration Of The Prison Policy Institute1369 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages2.4 million Americans incarcerated in the United States with nearly 40% of that number being drug related offenses. Further the United states only makes up five percent of the worlds population, but we make up 25% of the worlds prison population and if you factor in the 40% of that 25% being drug offenders you can see that nearly a tenth of the worlds incarcerated are attributed to American dr ug offenders. These statistics can be seen in these two slides. II. Now if that statistic right there isRead MoreHistory And Impact Of Drug Treatment Courts1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe History and Impact of Drug Treatment Courts Tincen Vithayathil University of Baltimore The History and Impact of Drug Courts Between 1990 and 1999, individuals who were convicted of a drug crime rose past 100,000, which accounted for 20 percent of our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s increased prison population (Lurigio, 2008). Between 1995 and 2003, the number of drug-related offenders constituted the largest increase of criminals in our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s prison population (Lurigio, 2008). In 2004, approximatelyRead MoreThe Flawed Drug Policy of America1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAmericas Flawed Drug Policy Introduction: As a major policy issue in the United States, the War on Drugs has been one of the most monumental failures on modern record. At a cost of billions of taxpayer dollars, thousands of lives lost and many thousands of others ruined by untreated addiction or incarceration, Americas policy orientation concerning drug laws is due for reconsideration. Indeed, the very philosophical orientation of the War on Drugs and of the current drug policy in the UnitedRead MoreNon-Violent Drug Offenders -Porp. 361741 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStatistics show 21.2% of low level drug offenders, that are incarcerated, do not have any current or prior violence in their records, no involvement in sophisticated criminal activity and no prior commitment. (USDOJ) Could this be the problem of prisons being over populated? There are many factors that need to be considered when looking for other possible methods of dealing with non-violent drug offenders. Some lawmakers believe the only way to deal with these of fenders is to lock them up for long periodsRead MoreThe War on Drugs Essay1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestrillion spent by the United States on the Ã¢â¬Å"War on DrugsÃ¢â¬ , statistics from the US Department of Justice (2010) has confirmed that the usage of drugs has not changed over the past 10 years. Approximately $350 billion is spent per year on the Ã¢â¬Å"war on drugsÃ¢â¬ , only $7 billion is spent on prevention programs by the federal government. The war on drugs is more heavily focused on how to fight crime, instead of how to prevent it. Crime prevention methods may not be immediate, but it is the most efficientRead MoreThe War On Drugs And Drugs1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWar on Drugs Despite an estimated $1 trillion spent by the United States on the Ã¢â¬Å"War on DrugsÃ¢â¬ , statistics from the US Department of Justice (2010) has confirmed that the usage of drugs has not changed over the past 10 years. Approximately $350 billion is spent per year on the Ã¢â¬Å"war on drugsÃ¢â¬ , only $7 billion is spent on prevention programs by the federal government. The war on drugs is more heavily focused on how to control crime, instead of how to prevent it. Not only is the war on drugs costlyRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency Treatment : Description And Fundamental Principles1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesperiod; criminal behavior at this stage in their life will not necessarily follow them into adulthood. For this reason, rehabilitation has a particular appeal in reference to dealing with juvenile offenders (Treatment Programs for Juvenile Delinquents, 1999). When determining what kind of treatment is appropriate for juvenile offenders, it is crucial to identify his or her delinquency type. There are four basic types of delinquents: neurotic disturbed, un-socialized psychopathic, subcultural socializedRead MoreThe Criminal Justice System Of The San Diego Sheriff s Department For 23 Years998 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthat they serve. Next he explained his role as a school resource officer. This job required him to provide drug courses for the students and interview the kids with drug and alcohol issues. He would meet with the parents and ensure that the students would go to class. He really enjoyed seeing how his work affected studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives for the better. His least favorite part of this job was dealing with the parents because a lot of parents would not believe that their child had done anything wrong, so theyRead MoreLegal Studies Assess the effectiveness of the Criminal Justice System in dealing with young offenders.1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCriminal Justice System in dealing with young offenders. There are a few common reasons for young people to be involved in crime. These include poor parental supervision, drug and alcohol abuse, neglect and abuse, homelessness, negative peer associations and difficulties in school and employment. The criminal justice system effectively deals with young offenders through unique techniques to address the challenges of dealing with juvenile offending. Even though young offenders commit a large percentageRead MoreThe Cell Door Slams Shut2636 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesMelissa Shambach Flannery AP Lang/Green 2 5 December 2014 Mass Incarceration Clang! The cell door slams shut. An ominous sound that has been heard by millions of people; more and more every day. In the United States, one in every one hundred forty people is currently incarcerated (Walmsley). Not many people have a concept of this rate. Is this normal? Certainly not. When compared to the rest of the world, the U.S Ã¢â¬Å"...has about five percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population and houses around 25 percent
Friday, December 27, 2019
Gender Stereotypes in Cinema as Examined Through Taken and Snitch Introduction: Modern cinema is at once an opportunity for escapism and a direct reflection of realities within our broader culture. This is why the issue of gender portrayal and the representation of gender roles in film are both such important issues. In many ways, the images placed on the big screen can have a direct impact on the way that our collective culture forms its ideals and expectations. As a culture, we are highly susceptible to the impression-building that is conjured in our media and reflected back to us. In many cases, the performances on screen suggest an idealized version of ourselves, whether in their physical attraction, sexual prowess or heroic behavior. Perhaps this one of the fantasies that makes truly great cinema such a transporting experience. But even in great cinema, a certain reality must be acknowledged. Specifically, the fact that our culture is reflected in a certain respect on the movie screen suggests that many of its less-admirable qualities are also depicted. The focus of this discussion is on the manner in which gender roles are prescribed in cinema and, even more specifically, how female characters in film are largely confined to one-dimension archetypes either to be rescued, sexually objectified or villanized. A strong woman that does not fit these characteristics is rare in film. This is especially so in the highly patriarchal milieu of action-oriented films, within